About Turkey

Turkey in General

ContinentAsia and Europe
System of GovernmentPresidential Republic
Official LanguageTurkish
CurrencyTurkish Lira
Country CodeTR
Number of Cities81
Telephone Code+90

Turkey is a peninsula surrounded by three seas, Black sea, Mediterranean and Marmara sea, a bridge between Asia and Europe. Geographically, it is located at the crossroads of Middle East, Balkans and Caucasus. In terms of land and population among the largest countries in its region and its territory greater than many European states. It has a total area of 783.562 square kilometers. It ranks 37th in the world in terms of land area. 97% percent of the country is in Asia continent and this part also known as Anatolia or Asia Minor. Two throats combine Black sea to Mediterranean, Bosphorus and Dardanelles, these two are only passes for Black seaports to open oceans.

Its neighbouring counties are Bulgaria, Romania and Greece on west, Russia and Ukraine at the other side of black sea on north, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Iran on east, Syria and Iraq on south.

The Republic was established by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in 1923 which marks the end of the Ottoman Empire. Afterward, Turkey has developed into a modern, secular and democratic state. It was a parliamentary republic until 2017; adopted presidential system with a referendum at that time.

Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF, and the World Bank, and a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC, and G20. After becoming the earliest member of the European Council in 1950, it became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995, and initiated accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005.


As of January 2020 officially, 83,154,997 inhabitants live in the country.

92.8% of the population live in the cities and 7.2% in villages or small towns. Its four largest cities are Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir and Antalya which have become major urban centres by their historical heritage as well as modern design. The capital is Ankara, the and largest city is Istanbul.

Istanbul: 15,519,267 inhabitants. 18.66 % of the total population.

Ankara: 5,639,076 inhabitants. 6.7 % of the total population.

Izmir: 4,367,251 inhabitants. 5.3 % of the total population.

Antalya: 2,570,306 inhabitants. 3.10 of the total population.


In 2005, six zeros were removed from the Turkish Lira. This and the introduction of a new economic program heals the short-term imbalances in economy, also contributes rapid improves in business environment via constructing sustainable growth.  As a result, country was relatively unaffected by 2008-2012 global crisis.

Economy has showed a very high growth rate in 2014 with GNP increasing 8,5% and GDP 8.9%, in 2015 it was 4%, and in 2016 3,2%.

As a result of the Customs Union with the European Union since 1995 and the continuing EU pre-accession process, the economic legislative environment is in progressive alignment with the main standards and policies of the EU.

Turkey is a driving market equipped with a network of modern infrastructure and a universal competitive workforce. Its geopolitical location at the passageway of the world trade routes and its connection to the developing energy-generating regions in the Caspian and Central Asia are motives that increase its potential for the future.

Turkey’s free-market economy relies on its industry and service sectors although agriculture sector still covers 25% of employment. Automotive, petrochemical and electronic industries have risen in importance and surpassed traditional textile and agriculture sectors within Turkey’s export mix.


Agriculture is still an occupation of the majority, despite the percentage of industry and services are moving up constantly. Turkey is one of the few self-sufficient countries in the world in terms of food. Fertile soil, adequate climate, and abundant rainfall permit growing any kind of crops. Farming is conducted in all regions of Turkey yet, it is relatively less processed in mountainous eastern regions where the major livelihood is animal husbandry which has one-fourth of the entire agricultural production.

Turkey is one of the widest countries in the world in terms of agricultural lands. 35,5% of lands is arable and 15% is forest. Vegetable products are leading as 76% in farming and then animal husbandry comes. Forestry and fishing contribute lower amounts. Fruits and field crops make up the most of vegetable products while wheat is the leading crop.

In addition, Turkey is the biggest grower and exporter of hazelnuts, figs, raisins and apricots. Fourth biggest producer of fresh vegetables and grapes, sixth biggest producer of tobacco, eighth biggest producer of wheat and tenth biggest producer of cotton. Tea is also widely grown and exported. Therefore, hazelnuts, figs, apricots, raisins and tea are the best and cheapest presents that you may bring back home

Animal Husbandry

Livestock sector plays an important role in agriculture and the economy. In some portions where farming is limited because of land shape and harsh climates like Eastern and South-eastern parts, households make their living with animal breeding. Products related to livestock such as meat, milk, eggs, honey, wool and hides are significant for development of these kinds of rural areas in country. The share of animal husbandry in the total agricultural activity is around 25%.

Wool is also a significant export product of Turkey. Internally, it is being used for textile industry and weaving world-famous Turkish rugs.

In poultry production, Turkey is the world’s tenth and Europe’s second-biggest meat producer with 2.1 million tons according to 2017 data.


Last two decades Turkey has made a grand amount of investments in infra and superstructure. It includes transport improvement, modernization of airports and air terminals as well as the building of new ones. Main cities like Istanbul, Ankara and Antalya are connected to nearly all European countries via international flights. Domestic flights within the country also depart frequently. The highways crisscrossing the entire country; appropriate, comfortable bus services and coach tours make traveling in Turkey easy and enjoyable. Transportation infrastructure, efficiency of services and developed communication network system meet all requirements of contemporary tourism.

Today accommodation industry serves a range of facilities from the top quality, super modern deluxe category hotels and holiday villages, boutique hotels to the affordable ones. Although city hotels, summer resorts and holiday complexes take greater part in accommodation preferences, considerable number of ski, winter resort and spa hotels are available in various parts of the country. Most hotels have a big variety of recreation and entertainment facilities. There are number of golf courses of international standards in different parts of the country, predominantly in Antalya.

Turkey has an international reputation for hosting the most important meetings and conventions of the world. In addition to the top quality convention centres of huge capacity, equipped with advanced technology; high-grade hotels also have facilities for events.

World-famous Turkish cuisine restaurants, bars, entertainment life and cultural activities address tourists from all over the world.

To sum up, with its natural resources, historical treasures, attractions, cultural values, lifestyle and efficient tourism industry, Turkey offers a wide selection of choices for even the most sophisticated and demanding traveler


According to constitution every citizen has right to study free of charge. The central government covers education expenses of citizens. Primary education which is twelve years is compulsory. Since 2012, these twelve years are divided into 4+4+4 schooling system.

Academic curriculum starts in September and extends to June. In some overpopulated regions, school education is split into two as morning and afternoon sessions while in underpopulated vicinities this is not the matter. Schooling lasts on weekdays for a total of 35-40 hours. Saturday and Sunday are off days. Two weeks of winter semester exists between January and February. Universities mostly constitute their academic curriculum subject to their own necessities.

Health and Welfare

The financing of healthcare system has three major sources. They are government budget, contributions from working citizens and out of pocket contributions (in between 3 to 10 Turkish Lira depending to the type of hospital). This out of pocket payments are made by each patient.

Employers have to register their workers with health insurance funds and income is regularly deducted from workers’ wages. Dependant individuals in families are covered by means of contributions paid by employed family members. The unemployed, old age pensioners and people with long-term diseases make a small amount of payments. Self-employed citizens have to make their own contributions to the health insurance fund.

The Ministry of Health, universities and the private sector are three health providers in the country. Private healthcare is quite common in country although a bit costly and it is accessible for the majority. In comparison to western counties private hospitals are far cheaper and on a par with western standards. That’s why in recent years people from all over the world from different strata travel Turkey as health tourists to utilize the opportunities.

Dental care in Turkey is because at high standards, popular not also by citizens but also tourists. Big dentistry facilities are mainly private and meet western standards. Dental education and legislation is formed by the Ministry of Health and dentists practicing in Turkey have to possess a qualification recognized by this body. They must also affiliate with the Turkish Dental Association, an organization that commands dental practices and helps to enhance the profession through continuing education. The dentistry sector relies on its dentists sustaining high standards to ensure good reputation. Nearly one million tourists visit Turkey each year for their remedy including dental work.

  • Acardent is an Authorised International Health Provider by Ministry of Health in Turkey.
HTML Snippets Powered By : XYZScripts.com